Background: Stroke is the main cause of physical disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Two-thirds of all strokes occur in the developing countries. Despite being preventable, stroke is increasingly becoming a major health issue in these countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran, one of the main referral centers in the southwestern part of Iran.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all stroke patients admitted to the Namazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, between August 2010 and January 2011. Patients’ demographic data, atherosclerosis risk factors, type of stroke, drug history, outcomes, and neurological signs were recorded. Chi-square test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the data.Results: A total of 305 patients with stroke, aged 27-97 years (mean ± SD = 68.33 ± 12.99), 269 patients (88.2%) had ischemic stroke (IS) and 36 (11.8%) had hemorrhagic stroke (HS). 133 patients (43.6%) were men and 172 (56.4%) were women. 11.4% of the patients with IS and 40.6% with HS died during hospitalization, causing 12.1% death in all stroke patients [Odds ratio (Or) = 5.34, 95% Confidence intervals (CI) = 2.35-12.11]. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and recurrent stroke were the most common risk factors.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the epidemiology of stroke in the southwestern part of Iran may be similar to other places. However, it seems necessary and helpful to design a registration system for patients with stroke in Shiraz Namazee Hospital.