Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Skull Base Research Center, Loghman Hakim Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Brain Mapping Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Clinical Research Development Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Trauma Research Center, School of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Anesthesiology Research Center, Loghman Hakim Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

After brain injuries, concentrations of some brain markers such as S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated with the severity and outcome of brain damage. To perform an updated review of S100B roles in human neurocritical care domain, an electronic literature search was carried among articles published in English prior to March 2017. They were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBSCO, CINAHL, ISC and the Cochrane Library using keywords including “brain”, “neurobiochemical marker”, “neurocritical care”, and “S100B protein”. The integrative review included 48 studies until March 2017. S100B protein can be considered as a marker for blood brain barrier damage. The marker has an important role in the development and recovery of normal central nervous system (CNS) after injury. In addition to extra cerebral sources of S100B, the marker is principally built in the astroglial and Schwann cells. The neurobiochemical marker, S100B, has a pathognomonic role in the diagnosis of a broad spectrum of brain damage including traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, and stroke. Moreover, a potential predicting role for the neurobiochemical marker has been presumed in the efficiency of brain damage treatment and prognosis. However further animal and human studies are required before widespread routine clinical introduction of S100 protein.