Background: Stem cell-based therapy is a new method for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are a kind of adult stem cells which have a higher frequency in the fat tissue and have the ability to differentiate into other cell types outside their lineage. Due to some serious adverse events of cell-based therapy such as tumorigenic potential, the aim of this study was to evaluate of hADSCs differentiation into oligodendrocytes as a valuable way for future cell transplantation.Methods: hADSC were isolated from lipoaspirate samples of human abdominal fat. After hADSC characterization via flow cytometry, the cells were induced to oligodendrocytes using a special differentiation medium. Finally, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), immunocytochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used for the evaluation of differentiated cells.Results: Flow cytometry indicated that hADSCs were CD105- and CD49-positive, but were negative for CD31 and CD45 markers. In addition, immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that a high percent of differentiated cells expressed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells markers [A2B5 and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)] which were significantly higher than myelin basic protein (MBP) which is mature oligodendrocytes marker. Moreover, a very low percentage of differentiated cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker. Finally, real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the results of immunocytochemistry.Conclusion: Since hADSCs have the potential to differentiate into multi-lineage cells and due to their additional characteristics such as immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties, it seems that these cells may be an ideal cell source for oligodendrocytes differentiation.