Mazyar Hashemilar; Afshin Partovi; Nasrin Forghani; Ehsan Sharifipour
Background: Atherosclerotic involvement of large and small cerebral arteries leading to infarction is among the most prevalent subtypes of stroke worldwide. The hemodynamic changes due to these arterial pathologies can be studied non-invasively and in real-time by using transcranial Doppler (TCD) techniques. ...
Background: Atherosclerotic involvement of large and small cerebral arteries leading to infarction is among the most prevalent subtypes of stroke worldwide. The hemodynamic changes due to these arterial pathologies can be studied non-invasively and in real-time by using transcranial Doppler (TCD) techniques. TCD indices of the studied arteries may guide the clinician in differentiating these two underlying arterial pathologies. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with small and large vessel types of cerebral infraction based on the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) stroke classification was undertaken in the inpatient population of neurology service of Razi Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from October 2018 to October 2019. After clinical diagnosis, all cases underwent TCD studies, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and brain and cervical four-vessel magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The results of TCD indices related to major arteries of the circle of Willis were tabulated and compared between large and small vessel subtypes of cerebral infarction. Results: A statistically significant difference between right middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI), left MCA PI, right internal carotid artery (ICA) PI, end-diastolic velocity (EDV), left ICA PI, left ICA EDV, left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) PI, and right vertebral artery (VA) PI measures of the two groups was seen (P < 0.05). In comparison to the large vessel group, left ACA, right VA, and bilateral MCAs and ICAs in the small-vessel stroke group demonstrated an elevated PI. Conclusion: A significant increase of PI occurs in the majority of intracranial arteries of patients with small vessel stroke. This makes PI a valuable marker for differentiating strokes with different underlying pathophysiologies.
Haris Kamal; Edward J. Fine; Banafsheh Shakibajahromi; Ashkan Mowla
This publication reviews the steps in the path towards obtaining a complete image of the brain. Up to the 1920s, plain X-ray films could demonstrate only calcified tumors, shifts in midline position of a calcified pineal gland due to a mass in the cranium, or foreign metallic objects within the skull. ...
This publication reviews the steps in the path towards obtaining a complete image of the brain. Up to the 1920s, plain X-ray films could demonstrate only calcified tumors, shifts in midline position of a calcified pineal gland due to a mass in the cranium, or foreign metallic objects within the skull. Walter Dandy reported in 1918 that he visualized cerebral ventricles by introducing air as a contrast agent through a trocar into one of the occipital lobes or the right frontal horn of the ventricular system. Dandy localized lesions that distorted or shifted the ventricles. In 1920, Dandy placed air by lumbar puncture into the spinal subarachnoid space that could visualize the brain and entire ventricles. Antonio Egas Moniz with the assistance of his neurosurgeon colleague, Almeida Lima, obtained X-ray images of cerebral arteries of dogs and decapitated human heads from corpses after injecting strontium bromide into their carotid arteries. Satisfied by these experiments, Moniz injected strontium bromide directly into carotid arteries of five patients which failed to show intracranial vessels. In the sixth patient, intracranial arteries were outlined but that patient died of cerebral thrombosis presumably due to the hyper-osmolality of that contrast agent. Finally, on June 18, 1927, Moniz injected 22% sodium iodine into a 20-year-old man and obtained clear visualization of his carotid artery and intracerebral branches after temporarily occluding the artery with a ligature. Direct percutaneous puncture of the cervical carotid artery remained the primary technique unto the 1960s to visualize intracranial blood vessels until Seldinger’s technique was introduced in 1953. Computerized axial tomography (CAT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) replaced cerebral arteriography for localizing tumors and epidural or subdural hemorrhage. However, angiography is used currently for embolization of aneurysms and removal of thrombi or emboli in patients with acute stroke.