Background: Migraine is a neurologic disorder. Although, based on previous evidence, migraine is related with inflammation and oxidative stress, its relationship with the inflammatory potential of the diet is still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to show the correlation between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and severity and duration of migraine headache.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 266 women who suffered from migraine, were included. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected form all participants. 147-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was collected to assess dietary intake and consequently, DII scores were calculated. Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and a 30-day headache diary were also completed by each participant.
Results: The DII score ranged between -4.22 and 5.19 and its median [interquartile range (IQR)] was 0.003 (-1.48-1.55). There was no meaningful association between age, occupation, physical activity (PA), weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and DII score classifications (P > 0.050). Subjects with more than 20 days of headache had higher DII score compared to those with less than 10 days per month [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-2.08, P = 0.001]. There was no association between DII and migraine severity (VAS and MIDAS) in the crude and adjusted model of logistic regression. Although there was a significant association between headache duration and DII (P = 0.020), this relationship was not meaningful after adjusting for age, PA, BMI, and job status (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.28-1.00, P = 0.052).
Conclusion: The present study showed a direct association between headache frequency and DII. Nevertheless, any relationship was not found between headache duration or migraine severity and DII score. Future large and prospective studies are needed to explore the effect of inflammatory potential of diet in migraine characteristics.