Background: Learning and memory are the most intensively studied subjects in neuroscience. Two sites of mammalian brain which are important in learning and memory are CA1 region of hippocampus and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum. So, the aim of present investigation was to study of the effect of ovariectomy and passive avoidance learning on NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor distribution in CA1 region of hippocampus and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum.Methods:Twenty four Sprague-Dawley rats were used in 4 groups: control-1 (intact without learning), control-2 (intact with learning), ovariectomy without learning, and ovariectomy with learning. Immunohistochemical procedure was used for determination of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptor. A shuttle box apparatus used for passive avoidance learning procedure. The determination of color intensity was cone by Photoshop software.Results:Immunohistological findings indicated that ovariectomy has a negative effect on density of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors in two brain regions. Passive avoidance learning significantly increased density of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors in two brain regions.Conclusion:The results indicated that the sex hormone can modulate function and expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptor in CA1 region of hippocampus and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum.