Background: Evidence is accumulating that venous thromboembolism is not limited to coagulation system and immune system seems to be involved in formation and resolution of thrombus. Some studies have demonstrated the role of inflammatory factors in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of limbs; however, there has not been such study in the patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). The purpose of this study was to evaluate inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the patients with the history of CVST.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 20 patients with the first episode of CVST and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The patients were seen only after anticoagulant treatment had been discontinued for at least 3 months. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in two groups.Results: The median age of patients was 37.0 [interquartile range (IQR) = 31.75-42.75] and in control group was 42.0 (IQR = 38.0-40.6) (P = 0.18). In patients group, 14 (70%) were females and in control group, also, 14 (70%) subjects were female (P = 0.01). It is significant that the level of IL-6 was significantly higher in the control group [patients: median: 9.75, IQR: 8.98-10.65; controls: median: 11.45, IQR: 10.28-13.10; P = 0.01]; however, the ESR level was higher in the patients. On the subject of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, no significant difference was detected.Conclusion: We did not find higher concentrations of inflammatory ILs in the patients with the history of CVST that is contradictory with some findings in venous thrombosis of the extremities; however, the studies with larger sample size may be required.