Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Nursing, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece

Abstract

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which is related with unpredictable course and increasing disability. Social support as an available interpersonal resource may help patients with MS. The purposeof the present studywas to evaluate perceived social support in patients with MS as well as the associated factors.
Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study included 200 patients with MS. Data collection was performed by the completion of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and a questionnaire which included patients' characteristics.
Results: Patients reported to perceive high support from significant others and their family (median:
24.0 and 23.5, respectively) and less from their friends (median: 20). Moreover, a statistically significant association was found between social support from significant others and marital status (P = 0.010), modification of daily activities (P = 0.018), difficulties with social and family environment (P ≤ 0.001 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively), frequent urination (P = 0.015), and whether they easily forgot (P = 0.049), characterized themselves as anxious (P = 0.049), and believed in God (P = 0.002). Also, a statistically significant association was fond between social support from family and relation with health professionals (P = 0.041), difficulties with social and family environment
(P = 0.003 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively), and whether they considered themselves as anxious (P = 0.050), and they believed in God (P ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between support from friends and modification of daily activities (P = 0.010), help in daily activities (P = 0.016), need for movement assistance (P = 0.001), difficulties with social and family environment (P ≤ 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), and whether they considered themselves anxious (P = 0.046).
Conclusion: Factors associated with perceived social support should be evaluated when planning holistic care to patients with MS.

Keywords

  1. Ershadinia N, Mortazavinia N, Babaniamansour S, Najafi-Nesheli M, Babaniamansour P, Aliniagerdroudbari E. The prevalence of autoimmune diseases in patients with multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study in Qom, Iran, in 2018. Curr J Neurol 2020; 19(3): 98-102.
  2. Sahraian MA, Sahebkar M, Dehghani R, Derakhshan-Jazari M, Kazami-Moghaddam V, Kouchaki E. Multiple sclerosis-A disease on a dramatically rising trend in Iran: Review of possible reasons. Iran J Neurol 2017; 16(1): 34-40.
  3. Kingwell E, Marriott JJ, Jette N, Pringsheim T, Makhani N, Morrow SA, et al. Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Europe: A systematic review. BMC Neurol 2013; 13: 128.
  4. Baghizadeh S, Sahraian MA, Beladimoghadam N. Clinical and demographic factors affecting disease severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Iran J Neurol 2013; 12(1): 1-8.
  5. Zivadinov R, Iona L, Monti-Bragadin L, Bosco A, Jurjevic A, Taus C, et al. The use of standardized incidence and prevalence rates in epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis. A meta-analysis study. Neuroepidemiology 2003; 22(1): 65-74.
  6. Shavazi MA, Morowatisharifabad MA, Shavazi MT, Mirzaei M, Ardekani AM. Online Social Support for Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Thematic Analysis of Messages Posted to a Virtual Support Community. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2016; 4(3): 188-98.
  7. Kamenov K, Cabello M, Caballero FF, Cieza A, Sabariego C, Raggi A, et al. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders. PLoS One 2016; 11(2): e0149356.
  8. Roohafza HR, Afshar H, Keshteli AH, Mohammadi N, Feizi A, Taslimi M, et al. What's the role of perceived social support and coping styles in depression and anxiety? J Res Med Sci 2014; 19(10): 944-9.
  9. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Clanet M, Cohen JA, Filippi M, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol 2011; 69(2): 292-302.
  10. Theofilou P. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Greece. Health Psychol Res 2015; 3(1): 1061.
  11. Krokavcova M, van Dijk JP, Nagyova I, Rosenberger J, Gavelova M, Middel B, et al. Social support as a predictor of perceived health status in patients with multiple sclerosis. Patient Educ Couns 2008; 73(1): 159-65.
  12. Ponzio M, Tacchino A, Zaratin P, Vaccaro C, Battaglia MA. Unmet care needs of people with a neurological chronic disease: A cross-sectional study in Italy on Multiple Sclerosis. Eur J Public Health 2015; 25(5): 775-80.
  13. Borreani C, Bianchi E, Pietrolongo E, Rossi I, Cilia S, Giuntoli M, et al. Unmet needs of people with severe multiple sclerosis and their carers: Qualitative findings for a home-based intervention. PLoS One 2014; 9(10): e109679.
  14. Hughes N, Locock L, Ziebland S. Personal identity and the role of 'carer' among relatives and friends of people with multiple sclerosis. Soc Sci Med 2013; 96: 78-85.
  15. Uccelli MM. The impact of multiple sclerosis on family members: A review of the literature. Neurodegener Dis Manag 2014; 4(2): 177-85.
  16. Koban L, Schneider R, Ashar YK, Andrews-Hanna JR, Landy L, Moscovitch DA, et al. Social anxiety is characterized by biased learning about performance and the self. Emotion 2017; 17(8): 1144 55.
  17. Polikandrioti M, Olympios CM. Anxiety and coronary artery disease. Arch Hell Med 2014; 31(4): 403-11.
  18. Costa DC, Sa MJ, Calheiros JM. Social support network and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017; 75(5): 267-71.
  19. Henry A, Tourbah A, Camus G, Deschamps R, Mailhan L, Castex C, et al. Anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis: The mediating effects of perceived social support. Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019; 27: 46-51.
  20. Plow M, Finlayson M, Motl RW, Bethoux F. Randomized controlled trial of a teleconference fatigue management plus physical activity intervention in adults with multiple sclerosis: Rationale and research protocol. BMC Neurol 2012; 12: 122.
  21. Aghaei N, Karbandi S, Gorji MA, Golkhatmi MB, Alizadeh B. Social support in relation to fatigue symptoms among patients with multiple sclerosis. Indian J Palliat Care 2016; 22(2): 163-7.
  22. Motl RW, McAuley E, Snook EM, Gliottoni RC. Physical activity and quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Intermediary roles of disability, fatigue, mood, pain, self-efficacy and social support. Psychol Health Med 2009; 14(1): 111-24.
  23. Allahbakhshian M, Jafarpour M, Parvizi S. Spiritual well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2011; 16(3): 202-6.
  24. Puchalski CM. The role of spirituality in health care. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2001; 14(4): 352-7.
  25. Bussing A, Wirth AG, Humbroich K, Gerbershagen K, Schimrigk S, Haupts M, et al. Faith as a resource in patients with multiple sclerosis is associated with a positive interpretation of illness and experience of gratitude/awe. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013: 128575.
  26. Iranmanesh S, Tirgari B, Tofighi M, Forouzi MA. Spiritual wellbeing and perceived uncertainty in patients with multiple sclerosis in south-east Iran. Int
    J Palliat Nurs 2014; 20(10): 483-92.
  27. Rommer PS, Suhnel A, Konig N, Zettl UK. Coping with multiple sclerosis-the role of social support. Acta Neurol Scand 2017; 136(1): 11-6.
  28. Irvine H, Davidson C, Hoy K, Lowe-Strong A. Psychosocial adjustment to multiple sclerosis: Exploration of identity redefinition. Disabil Rehabil 2009; 31(8): 599-606.
  29. Lonergan R, Kinsella K, Fitzpatrick P, Duggan M, Jordan S, Bradley D, et al. Unmet needs of multiple sclerosis patients in the community. Mult Scler Relat Disord 2015; 4(2): 144-50.
  30. Balto JM, Pilutti LA, Motl RW. Loneliness in multiple sclerosis: Possible antecedents and correlates. Rehabil Nurs 2019; 44(1): 52-9.
  31. Hakim EA, Bakheit AM, Bryant TN, Roberts MW, McIntosh-Michaelis SA, Spackman AJ, et al. The social impact of multiple sclerosis-a study of 305 patients and their relatives. Disabil Rehabil 2000; 22(6): 288-93.
  32. Ghafari S, Khoshknab MF, Norouzi K, Mohamadi E. Spousal support as experienced by people with multiple sclerosis: A qualitative study. J Neurosci Nurs 2014; 46(5): E15-E24.
  33. Gibson J, Frank A. Supporting individuals with disabling multiple sclerosis. J R Soc Med 2002; 95(12): 580-6.
  34. Polikandrioti M, Ntokou M. Needs of hospitalized patients. Health Sci J 2011; 5(1): 15-22.
  35. Pahlavanzadeh S, Dalvi-Isfahani F, Alimohammadi N, Chitsaz A. The effect of group psycho-education program on the burden of family caregivers with multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2015; 20(4): 420-5.