Iran is an ancient country, known as the cradle of civilization. The history of medicine in Iran goes back to the existence of a human in this country, divided into three periods: pre-Islamic, medieval, and modern period. There are records of different neurologic terms from the early period, while Zoroastrian (religious) prescription was mainly used until the foundation of the first medical center (Gondishapur). In the medieval period, with the conquest of Islam, prominent scientists were taught in Baghdad, like Avicenna, who referred to different neurologic diseases including stroke, paralysis, tremor, and meningitis. Several outstanding scientists developed the medical science of neurology in Iran, the work of whom has been used by other countries in the past and present. In the modern era, the Iranian Neurological Association was established with the efforts of Professor Jalal Barimani in 1991.