Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Headache Department, Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Neurology Ward, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Headache Department, Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and odds of migraine. We aimed to investigate the association between posteriori dietary patterns and migraine odds and migraine-related outcomes using principal component analysis (PCA).
Methods: A total of 500 participants enrolled in this age- and sex-matched case-control study. Subjects in the case group were migraine patients who were diagnosed by a neurologist (n = 250) and subjects in the control group were healthy individuals (n = 250). Dietary intake was assessed using a 168-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Extraction of dietary patterns was performed via PCA. Information on the wide range of covariates and migraine-related outcomes were collected.
Results: The 2 major dietary patterns of the “Western diet” and “prudent diet” were extracted using PCA. Those who were in the highest quartile of the prudent diet had the lowest odds of migraine in the fully adjusted model [odds ratio (OR) = 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.21]. Additionally, higher adherence to the Western diet was positively associated with migraine odds (P ˂ 0.001) and this association remained significant and even increased after adjusting a wide range of confounders. Among migraine sufferers, those who had the highest score on the Western diet, had significantly higher attack frequency compared to the patients in the first quartile (15.4 ± 8.9 vs. 12.3 ± 8.6; P = 0.004).
Conclusion: The finding of a significant association between the 2 extracted dietary patterns and migraine odds highlights the possible role of diet in both the prevention and stimulation of migraine.


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