Special Articles
1. A review on adult pragmatic assessments.

Davood Sobhani Rad

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 113-118

Abstract
  Pragmatics is defined as appropriate use of language either to comprehend ideas or to interact in social situations effectively. Pragmatic competence, which is processed in the right hemisphere, comprises a number of interrelated skills that manifest in a range of adaptive behaviors. Due to the widespread ...  Read More

Special Articles
2. Cardiovascular effects of fingolimod: A review article.

Mohaddeseh Behjati; Masoud Etemadifar; Morteza Abdar Esfahani

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 119-126

Abstract
  Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-immune disease. Most therapeutic strategies for treatment of this disease direct immune modulation and control of inflammatory processes. First-line therapeutic agents showed moderate efficacy and frequent side-effects with moderate efficacy in trials. Their ...  Read More

Special Articles
3. Differentiation of true transient ischemic attack versus transient ischemic attack mimics.

Ali Noureddine; Kavian Ghandehari; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 127-130

Abstract
  Background: Previous literatures have shown a transient ischemic attack  (TIA) mimic rate  of 9-31%. We aimed  to ascertain the proportion of stroke mimics amongst suspected TIA patients. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed in   Ghaem   Hospital,   Mashhad,   Iran   ...  Read More

Special Articles
4. Pulmonary function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the association between these tests and survival.

Seyed-Ali Javad Mousavi; Babak Zamani; Shahab Shahabi Shahmiri; Mohammad Rohani; Gholam Ali Shahidi; Elyas Mostafapour; Helia Hemasian; Hanieh Raji

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 131-137

Abstract
  Background: The rapidity of progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to death or respiratory failure impacts patients, clinicians, and clinical investigators. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with ALS and the association between these PFTs ...  Read More

Special Articles
5. Comparison of electrophysiological findings in axonal and demyelinating Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Samira Yadegari; Shahriar Nafissi; Neda Kazemi

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 138-143

Abstract
  Background: Incidence and predominant subtype  of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) differs geographically. Electrophysiology has an important  role in early diagnosis and  prediction  of prognosis. This study  is conducted to determine the frequent  subtype  of GBS in a large group of patients  ...  Read More

Special Articles
6. Association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and ischemic stroke.

Hanieh Moshayedi; Reza Ahrabi; Afshin Mardani; Saieed Sadigetegad; Mehdi Farhudi

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 144-148

Abstract
  Background: Some studies  in recent  years showed  that carotid  intima-media   thickness  (IMT),  indicator  of  the presence  of atherosclerosis,  was higher  in non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease  (NAFLD)  in comparison  with  normal subjects.  They concluded  that  NAFLD  patients  ...  Read More

Special Articles
7. Effect of Boswellia papyrifera on cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

Behnaz Sedighi; Abbas Pardakhty; Hoda Kamali; Kaveh Shafiee; Bahar Naz Hasani

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 149-153

Abstract
  Background: Cognitive  impairment  is one of the  most crucial disorders  among  multiple  sclerosis (MS) patients. Since  MS  is  an inflammatory disease   and   Boswellia papyrifera has anti-inflammatory effects, the influence of B. papyrifera  on  cognitive  impairment   in  MS ...  Read More

Special Articles
8. Effect of NOS3 gene polymorphism on response to Tricyclic antidepressants in migraine attacks.

Aliasghar Molana; Masoud Mehrpour; Nasim Vousooghi; Mahmoud Reza Hajighasem; Mohammad Taghi Joghataei

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 154-159

Abstract
  Background: Migraine is a chronic  neurological  disorder, characterized  by recurrent  moderate to severe headaches. Worldwide migraine a=ects nearly 15%. Studies suggest that genes involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) may act as genetic  factors for migraine. NO synthase  3 (NOS3) ...  Read More

Special Articles
9. Knowledge and attitude assessment of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta.

Roya Abolfazli; Azam Elyasi; Mohammad Reza Javadi; Kheirollah Gholami; Hassan Torkamandi; Mohammad Amir-Shahkarami; Masoud Etemadifar; Zahra Nasr

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 160-167

Abstract
  Background:  Multiple  sclerosis  (MS) patients permanently confronted  with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing  a new  questionnaire in MS management, through  evaluation  of patients’ perspectives   and  knowledge   regarding   treatment  will help  to  identify ...  Read More

Special Articles
10. Association of interleukin 7 receptor gene polymorphism rs6897932 with multiple sclerosis patients in Khuzestan.

Mahshid Hosseini Behbahani; Hamid Galehdari; Maryam Mohaghegh

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 168-171

Abstract
  Background:  Multiple  sclerosis  (MS) is a  chronic inflammatory  demyelinating  and  neurodegenerative disease  of central  nervous  system  with unknown  causes. Etiology of MS involves  both  genetic  and  environment factors.  The  interleukin  7   receptor   (IL7R)   gene   ...  Read More

Special Articles
11. Seizures and movement disorders induced by hyperglycemia without ketosis in elderly.

Samia Younes; Yousra Cherif; Mouna Aissi; Wafa Alaya; Olfa Berriche; Amel Boughammoura; Mahbouba Frih-Ayed; Baha Zantour; Mohamed Habib Sfar

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 172-176

Abstract
  Background: Non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKHG) may increase the probability of seizures and movement disorders. Methods: We describe  a series of 14 elders admitted for seizures and movement disorders linked to NKHG.Results: Twelve  patients  developed motor  seizures  and two others movement disorders. ...  Read More

Special Articles
12. Morning glory syndrome associated with multiple sclerosis.

Anahid Safari; Esmail Jafari; Afshin Borhani-Haghighi

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 177-180

Abstract
  Morning glory syndrome (MGS) is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly characterized by a funnel-shaped, excavated optic disc surrounded by chorioretinal pigmentary disturbance. The main ophthalomoscopic feature of the MGS is enlarged optic disc with a funnel shaped scleral defect; elevated peripapillary ...  Read More

Special Articles
13. Cerebral abscess complicating embolization of an arteriovenous malformation: Case report and review of litera.

Alireza Khoshnevisan; Askar Ghorbani; Narges Sistany Allahabadi; Farshid Farzaneh; Sina Abdollahzadeh; Sepehr Soleymani; Vahidreza Ostovan

Volume 13, Issue 3 , Summer 2014, Pages 181-184

Abstract
  Central nervous system infection is a rare complication of endovascular procedures. We report a 21-year-old woman presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, and right-sided hemiparesis 4 months after endovascular embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Investigations led to the diagnosis ...  Read More